Peptides are short chains of amino acids connected by peptide (amide) bonds. The simplest peptide is dipeptide, followed by tripeptide, tetrapeptide and so on. Polypeptides are long, continuous and unbranched peptide chains. Therefore, peptides, along with nucleic acids, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, etc., belong to the broad chemical category of biological oligomers and polymers. Peptides differ from proteins in size, and as an arbitrary reference, they can be understood to contain about 50 or fewer amino acids. Proteins are composed of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional manner, usually combined with ligands such as coenzymes and cofactors. Endotoxins are only released when the bacteria die and lyse or destroy bacterial cells by artificial methods, so they are called endotoxins. Its toxic component is mainly lipid A. Endotoxin is located in the outermost layer of the cell wall, covering the mucosin of the cell wall. The toxic effects of endotoxins of various bacteria are relatively weak and are roughly the same. They can cause fever, microcirculation disorders, endotoxin shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Endotoxin has heat resistance and stability, and its antigenicity is very weak! It is commonly used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical proteins, such as immunoglobulin, human albumin, or peptide products, which require endotoxin testing.
Figure 1. Chemical structure of peptide.
Creative BioMart uses Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test for protein endotoxin detection. The primary application for LAL is the testing of blood or cerebrospinal fluid. There are three basic methodologies: gel-clot, turbidimetric, and chromogenic. The primary application for LAL is the testing of parenteral pharmaceuticals and medical devices that contact blood or cerebrospinal fluid. In the United States, the FDA has published a guideline for validation of the LAL test as an endotoxin test for such products. Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) is an aqueous extract of blood cells (amoebocytes) from the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. LAL reacts with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a membrane component of gram-negative bacteria. This reaction is the basis of the LAL test, which is widely used for the detection and quantification of bacterial endotoxins.
Pyrogen testing is one of the important inspection items to ensure the safety of drugs. In 1923, Seibert first proposed the method of detecting pyrogens in rabbits. In 1942, the United States Pharmacopoeia first used the rabbit method as a pyrogen test for drugs, which played an important role in ensuring drug quality and drug safety. Rabbit pyrogen test can objectively reflect the characteristics of pyrogens in various drugs and biological products in the body, and can intuitively reflect the temperature rise of experimental rabbits caused by pyrogens in drugs.
Creative BioMart offers a corresponding endotoxin testing service. You can purchase the corresponding endotoxin removal kit and related accessory products according to the needs of your own samples. We guarantee that all instruments, water, reagents, and consumables used in the experiment are free of endotoxins, and the experiment is conducted in a clean room to ensure that low levels of endotoxins are returned to the sample. In addition, we can also provide you with related services including:
|Project name||Endotoxin testing in peptide|
|Testing purpose||The toxic effects of endotoxins of various bacteria are roughly the same. They can cause fever, microcirculation disorders, endotoxin shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Endotoxin has heat resistance and stability, and its antigenicity is very weak! It is commonly used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical proteins, such as immunoglobulins, human albumin, or related products, which require endotoxin testing.|
|Testing cycle||3-5 days.|
|Service including||We provide you with raw data and test reports.|