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Endotoxins are macromolecules composed of lipids and polysaccharides. The term lipooligosaccharide ("LOS") is used to refer to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in low molecular weight form. Endotoxin are only released when the bacteria die and lyse or destroy bacterial cells by artificial methods, so they are called endotoxins. Its toxic component is mainly lipid A. Endotoxin is located in the outermost layer of the cell wall, covering the mucosin of the cell wall. The toxic effects of endotoxins of various bacteria are relatively weak and are roughly the same. They can cause fever, microcirculation disorders, endotoxin shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Endotoxin has heat resistance and stability, and its antigenicity is very weak! It is commonly used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical proteins, such as immunoglobulin, human albumin, or peptide products, which require endotoxin testing.
Endotoxin is a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria called lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide is toxic to the host. Endotoxins are released only when the bacteria die or dissolve or the bacterial cells are destroyed by artificial methods, so they are called endotoxins. Endotoxin is not a protein, so it is very heat-resistant. It will not be destroyed by heating at 100 ℃ for 1 hour. It can only be destroyed by heating at 160 ℃ for 2 to 4 hours, or boiling with a strong base, strong acid or strong oxidant for 30 minutes. The difference with exotoxin is that endotoxin cannot be detoxified by dilute formaldehyde solution to become toxoid; although injecting endotoxin into the body can produce a certain amount of specific immune products (called antibodies), but this antibody cancels the internal Toxic toxicity is weak.
The human body is extremely sensitive to bacterial endotoxins. A very small amount (1-5 ng / kg body weight) of endotoxin can cause a rise in body temperature, and the fever reaction gradually subsides after about 4 hours. The cause of endotoxin-induced fever reaction is that endotoxin acts on macrophages and neutrophils in the body to produce interleukins 1, 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha and other cytokines, which act on the host hypothalamus the body's temperature regulation center promotes fever and fever.
After bacterial endotoxins enter the host, the number of neutrophils in the bloodstream, which accounts for 60-70% of the total number of white blood cells, decreases rapidly. This is because the cells move and adhere to the capillaries of the tissue. However, 1-2 hours later, the neutrophil-releasing factor induced by endotoxin stimulated the bone marrow to release the neutrophils into the bloodstream, significantly increasing its number, and some immature neutrophils were also released. Therefore, before the diagnosis, in order to make a preliminary distinction between bacterial infection and viral infection, the doctor often has to test the blood of the patient, and make the total number measurement and classification of white blood cells. In patients infected with the virus, the total number of white blood cells and the percentage of neutrophils are basically within the normal range.
Endotoxemia can occur when a large number of Gram-negative pathogens in the lesion or bloodstream die, and a large amount of endotoxin released into the blood. A large amount of endotoxin acts on the body's macrophages, neutrophils, endothelial cells, and other biologically active substances. These substances act on small blood vessels to cause dysfunction and lead to microcirculation disorders.
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