Endotoxin Testing in Body Fluids

In recent years, the proportion of clinical Gram-negative bacteria (G-bacteria) infection has been increasing, and the resulting sepsis and endotoxemia are one of the common causes of death in patients. Endotoxin (ET) testing in humoral fluid can make early diagnosis of G-bacteria sepsis and endotoxemia, which has important clinical significance.

Method for detecting endotoxin in body fluids

In 1923, Seibert proposed the rabbit pyrogen test (RT) for the testing of endotoxins. Existing humoral endotoxin testing methods are mostly based on the principle of LAL test. In recent years, immunological methods, biological methods, and thin-layer chromatography have also been applied to the testing of endotoxins in body fluids.

Rabbit pyrogen test (RT)

The rabbit pyrogen test is based on the biological characteristics of endotoxin pyrogenicity. The body temperature of rabbits injected with the side sample was observed to determine the endotoxin in the prescribed time. The rabbit pyrogen test method has been mainly used for drug endotoxin testing. The force method has low sensitivity and has been used less frequently.

Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test (LAL test)

LAL test is a kind of arthropod. Amebocytes in the blood contain factor C, factor B and proclottin-gEnzyme, which can be activated by endotoxin. The activated coagulase can make the coagulation in the deformed cells coagulagen is coagulated to form coagulated proteins, which can be used for qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative determination of endotoxin. The reaction has high sensitivity (pg/ml) and specificity. It can be divided into gel method, turbidity method and color matrix method.

Endotoxin testing vessels and sample preparation

In order to eliminate the pollution of exogenous endotoxin, the vessels and samples used for the testing of endotoxin in body fluids require pretreatment. The utensils used should be roasted at 250℃ for at least 2 hours to inactivate exogenous endotoxin. Body fluid samples are mainly blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. When the limulus test is used to detect bacterial endotoxin, there is no interference in urine and cerebrospinal fluid, and no special treatment is required. Samples are usually collected by sterile and pyrogen-free methods, and placed in sterile and pyrogen-free test tubes. If the sample is turbid, centrifuge the supernatant. Blood samples contain disturbing substances and the pretreatment is more complicated. Diluted heating method, chloroform extraction method, ether treatment method, perchloric acid method, and modified perchloric acid dip and compound method are usually used.

Clinical application of endotoxin testing in body fluids

Many clinical laboratories have developed body fluids endotoxin testing, which are mainly used for the diagnosis of the following diseases:

Our Services for endotoxin testing in body fluids

Creative BioMart offers a corresponding endotoxin detection service. You can purchase the corresponding endotoxin removal kit and related accessory products according to the needs of your own samples. We guarantee that all instruments, water, reagents, and consumables used in the experiment are free of endotoxins, and the experiment is conducted in a clean room to ensure that low levels of endotoxins are returned to the sample. In addition, we can also provide you with related services including:

Our solutions

Project name Endotoxin testing in body fluids
Testing purpose The detection of endotoxin (ET) in body fluids can be used for early diagnosis of G-bacteria sepsis and endotoxemia, and has important clinical significance.
Testing cycle 3-5 days.
Service including We provide you with raw data and test reports.
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Reference

  1. Scott BB; et al. Endotoxin- polymyxin complexes in an improved enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay for IgG antibodies in blood donor sera to gram- negative endotoxin core glycolipids. Vox Sanguinis,1987,52:272- 280.

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