The preparation of dialysate, the washing of the dialyzer, the water of the dialyzer and the blood pipeline require the use of sterile deionized reverse osmosis (RO) water, that is, water for dialysis. Traditional dialysis treatment requires 120-180L of water. High-throughput dialysis consumes more water, and the water quality of dialysis water is directly related to the long-term effect of dialysis. In order to avoid adverse reactions of substandard water quality to patients, dialysis water must be strictly controlled in quality. Otherwise, once bacteria or chemicals enter the body, it will cause complications. The hygienic quality of dialysis water is related to the health and quality of life of many patients with renal failure. Therefore, the prevention and control of microbial and endotoxin contamination, standardizing the quality of dialysis water, dialysis concentrate and dialysate are very important.
The water used for dialysis is very demanding. It must be high-purity reverse osmosis water. It must rely on water treatment equipment to remove suspended particles, ions, bacteria and other microorganisms in tap water.
Tritium is the first step in water treatment. It mainly filters out the suspended particles of large and medium molecules, including colloidal substances.
When hard water flows over the surface of the ion exchange resin, the calcium and magnesium ions in the water are adsorbed and removed by the resin, and the water is softened. The adsorption effect of the resin is judged by measuring the hardness of the produced water.
Activated carbon can absorb water disinfectants such as bleach and chloramine organics, bacteria, viruses and pyrogens. The adsorption effect of activated carbon is judged by measuring the residual chlorine content. If it continues to exceed the standard, the activated carbon needs to be replaced, and washing cannot make the activated carbon regenerate.
Rhenium is the last part of water treatment and is designed according to the principle of reverse osmosis, including reverse osmosis membrane and pressure pump. Reverse osmosis membrane is a kind of highly pressure resistant acetate fiber membrane, which contains a large number of micropores with a pore size of 2 nanometers, and substances with a molecular weight greater than 200 cannot pass through. At a water temperature of 25 ° C, 95% to 99% of ions cannot pass through the pores of the reverse osmosis membrane, and 100% of bacteria and pyrogens cannot pass. The reverse osmosis water generated by filtering through these devices can be used as dialysis water only after being irradiated with ultraviolet rays.
The limulus amebocyte lysate method is currently the main method for the determination of endotoxins. This method has strong specificity, high sensitivity, and simple operation methods for detecting endotoxins. The USP has been included in the USP. The testing methods include gel method and photometric method. Photometric method includes turbidity method and color matrix method. Factor C in the reagent can react with endotoxin and activate factor B. The activated factor B turns coagulin into coagulase, and coagulin forms coagulin under the action of coagulase, and finally forms a gel.
Creative BioMart offers a corresponding endotoxin testing service. You can purchase the corresponding endotoxin removal kit and related accessory products according to the needs of your own samples. We guarantee that all instruments, water, reagents, and consumables used in the experiment are free of endotoxins, and the experiment is conducted in a clean room to ensure that low levels of endotoxins are returned to the sample. In addition, we can also provide you with related services including:
|Project name||Endotoxin testing in dialysate water|
|Testing purpose||Dialysis water, dialysis concentrate, and dialysate that exceed endotoxin levels will bring endotoxins into the blood of uremic patients, causing endotoxemia in uremic patients.|
|Testing cycle||3-5 days.|
|Service including||We provide you with raw data and test reports.|
When patients undergo hemodialysis, if the dialysis water and dialysate are contaminated by microorganisms, it can cause many complications and even directly threaten the patient's life. Once the hydrolyzed endotoxin enters the patient's body through the dialysis membrane, a heat-generating reaction will occur, which in turn will cause symptoms such as hypotension, fever, muscle spasm, and directly cause shock. Therefore, the testing and control of endotoxin in the hemodialysis system is an essential and important link.