Application of Plasma Endotoxin Testing in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Infection

Pulmonary infection is one of the most common diseases of the respiratory system. The cause is inflammation caused by pathogenic microorganisms (mainly bacterial infections) in the lungs. Immune function is low, and early diagnosis of atypical clinical manifestations is difficult. Causes the patient to cough, sputum, with or without chest pain, fever. Due to the different types of pathogens in the lung infection, it is unknown which type of pathogen is infected, and it is impossible to accurately administer drugs to sensitive bacteria. As a result, a large number of broad-spectrum antibiotics are used, resulting in genetic changes of the pathogenic microorganisms and resistance. As a result, pathogen testing is often urgently needed in clinic, and the time required for conventional bacterial culture is longer, 4-6 days, and the collected samples are easily contaminated, and the true positive rate is not high, which is not conducive to disease treatment. In recent years, new test items for rapid testing and diagnosis of bacterial infections have been increasing. Plasma endotoxin has a certain diagnostic value for the early identification of Gram-negative bacteria infection. The cellular components and plasma of fungi, animals and humans do not contain lipopolysaccharide components. If lipopolysaccharide is detected in the plasma of infected patients, it is an effective basis for the diagnosis of Gram-negative bacteria.

Currently, the positive Limulus test is used to diagnose lung infections Plasma endotoxin level> 0. 109 EU/mL is a quantitative standard, and it is confirmed that it is better than sputum culture for patients with Gram-negative bacteria lung infection.

Discussion

Endotoxin is a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, and is called lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide has a toxic effect on the host. Endotoxins are released only when the bacteria die or lyse and destroy the bacterial cells. Gram-negative bacteria are the main pathogenic bacteria in lung infections. Sputum culture is the most commonly used clinically to identify the type of infected bacteria, and the results of drug sensitivity tests are also provided. However, the cultivation time is relatively long, which takes 4 to 6 days, and cannot provide timely test results. In recent years, the use of plasma endotoxin testing in laboratories can not only quickly identify the types of pathogenic bacteria, but also have a high sensitivity, especially Gram-negative bacteria infections, the testing time is short, the operation is simple and only needs 2 hours to produce the results. Provide clinicians with early diagnosis and effective guidance on how to apply anti-infective drugs to sensitive bacteria. When local or superficial gram-negative bacteria are infected, the body's own immune system can clear the lipopolysaccharide and release it into the blood or not, resulting in false negative results of plasma endotoxin test. In addition, the plasma endotoxin test will also result in a very low percentage of false positive results, which may lead to contamination of test equipment, patient medication, high hemolysis of serum samples, high fat and high bilirubin. Therefore, plasma endotoxin test results should be correlated with clinical patient signs. The endotoxin limulus test is detected through the cascade of enzymes. Endotoxin participates in the activation of factor C by divalent cations, and then activates other zymogens to produce a series of agglutination reactions.

Conclusions

In summary, the endotoxin test has 2 hours to obtain the test results, so for patients with clinical pulmonary infection, the plasma endotoxin content should be dynamically monitored. Without the results of bacterial culture, the type of bacteria infected by the patient can be determined early to facilitate the clinical selection of antibacterial drugs against endotoxin, and timely treatment can prevent the patient from increasing the infection, resulting in adverse consequences. This method is fast, simple, and highly accurate, and can be used for the auxiliary diagnosis of Gram-negative bacteria.

Creative BioMart offers a corresponding endotoxin testing service. You can purchase the corresponding endotoxin removal kit and related accessory products according to the needs of your own samples. We guarantee that all instruments, water, reagents, and consumables used in the experiment are free of endotoxins, and the experiment is conducted in a clean room to ensure that low levels of endotoxins are returned to the sample. In addition, we can also provide you with related services including:

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