Application of Plasma Endotoxin Testing in Patients with Sepsis

Sepsis is one of the common diseases in the ICU and the most important cause of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in the intensive care unit. When the body is infected and the intestinal mucosal barrier function is reduced, pathogens and their metabolites can directly enter the blood, which can lead to sepsis. The pathogen of sepsis is mainly Gram-negative bacilli, and endotoxin is a component of cell wall lipopolysaccharide that is released when Gram-negative bacteria survive and die. It is an important trigger substance for systemic inflammatory response and can activate mononuclear macrophage Cells, endothelial cells, granulocytes and other inflammation-related cells, and release a variety of inflammatory mediators. At present, it is believed that the level of plasma sepsis is closely related to the gastrointestinal dysfunction and the risk of sepsis in patients, and its level is helpful to distinguish sepsis and septic shock. Due to the protection of the intestinal mucosal barrier and the phagocytosis of liver Kupffer cells, the normal body's endotoxin enters the blood at a very low concentration, but when the body is traumatized (including surgery), burns, chemoradiation, and long-term traditional parenteral nutrition At this time, intestinal endotoxin can enter the systemic circulation to form intestinal endotoxemia.

Sepsis Steps. Training tool for teaching the progression of sepsis stages.Figure 1. Sepsis Steps. Training tool for teaching the progression of sepsis stages.

Signs and symptoms of sepsis

In addition to symptoms related to the actual cause, patients with sepsis may have fever, hypothermia, shortness of breath, rapid heart rhythm, insanity, and edema. Early symptoms include faster heart rate, decreased urination, and high blood sugar. Signs of sepsis include insanity, metabolic acidosis (which may be accompanied by increased breathing and respiratory alkalosis), decreased blood pressure due to reduced systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output, and coagulopathy that may cause blood clotting exhaustion. Reduced blood pressure in sepsis can cause dizziness and is part of the standard for septic shock

Discussion

Sepsis is known for its high mortality rate. Although there have been some advances in anti-infective treatment and organ support for sepsis in recent years, its mortality rate remains high, and its mortality rate currently ranges from 6.5% to 35%. However, once septic shock occurs, the mortality rate increases significantly. The occurrence of shock during sepsis is related to the state of the body, the vascular reactivity of the body, the speed and amount of invasion of pathogenic bacteria and their metabolites, and the increase in endotoxin concentration is related to the occurrence of shock events. The higher the concentration of endotoxin entering the blood, the greater the possibility of shock.

Creative BioMart offers a corresponding endotoxin testing service. You can purchase the corresponding endotoxin removal kit and related accessory products according to the needs of your own samples. We guarantee that all instruments, water, reagents, and consumables used in the experiment are free of endotoxins, and the experiment is conducted in a clean room to ensure that low levels of endotoxins are returned to the sample. In addition, we can also provide you with related services including:

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