Septicemia refers to acute systemic infections caused by various pathogenic bacteria invading the blood circulation and growing in the blood to produce toxins. If the bacteria that invade the bloodstream are cleared by the body's defense function, it is called bacteremia when there is no obvious symptom of toxemia. Septicemia with multiple abscesses and a longer course is called septicemia. Pathogenic bacteria usually refer to bacteria, but can also be fungi, mycobacteria, etc. The clinical manifestations are generally acute onset, chills, high fever, shortness of breath, tachycardia, and rashes, joint swelling and pain, liver and splenomegaly, and changes in spirit and consciousness. In severe cases, acute organ dysfunction may occur, called severe septicemia. When the condition is further exacerbated, it can develop into septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and multiple organ failure.
Figure 1. Septicemia.
Septicemia is a relatively common and critically ill neonatal disease and the main cause of neonatal death. Clinical research and practice have shown that early and accurate diagnosis of neonatal septicemia can ensure that children receive effective treatment in a timely manner and can reduce mortality. At present, the main clinical diagnosis method for neonatal septicemia is blood culture, which has a high accuracy rate, but it takes a long time, and it is easy for children to lose the best treatment opportunity and increase the risk of death. Therefore, it is important to find a fast and accurate diagnosis method to improve the accuracy of early diagnosis of neonatal septicemia and provide a reliable basis for clinical treatment.
Because the immune function of newborns is very weak, once septicemia occurs, the mortality and disability rates are very high, and accurate early disease diagnosis can ensure that children are treated in a timely and effective manner, reduce the mortality of neonatal septicemia, and improve survival. Endotoxin is mainly a lipopolysaccharide released during the growth and development of Gram-negative bacteria or lysed during death. It is a bacterial metabolite. After the endotoxin enters the blood, the child's body will have obvious inflammation, which will further develop endotoxemia It is the main substance causing inflammation mediators. The testing time required for endotoxin is very short, and a positive result can be obtained within 1 hour of on-board testing. In addition, the content of endotoxin released by Gram-negative bacteria in patients infected with different antibiotics is somewhat different. In summary, the testing of endotoxin is of great significance in the early diagnosis of septicemia in newborns.
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