The main component of endotoxin is lipopolysaccharide, which is composed of three domains: lipid A, oligosaccharide core, and terminal O-antigen. Among them, lipid A is the biologically active part of LPS, which is released when the bacteria are autolyzed or artificially disintegrated. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease with the main symptoms of acute abdominal pain. Mild to moderate acute pancreatitis (MAP) has milder lesions, and has limited and self-limiting damage to organs. Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a disease that is induced by many factors and affects multiple organs and is severely damaged. The course of disease develops rapidly and fiercely, and the mortality rate is as high as 20% to 30%. Therefore, how to provide a rapid and accurate diagnosis for the clinic and actively perform the corresponding treatment is very important for its prognosis. Dynamic determination of serum endotoxin levels in patients with AP is very important to study and analyze the severity of the disease.
Figure 1. 3D Medical Animation still shot of Acute Pancreatitis.
In the course of the development of AP, due to different degrees of damage to the patient's intestinal protective barrier, bacterial products in the intestine, endotoxin, enter the sterile intestinal cavity through the intestinal wall. Pancreatic duct inflammatory edema is severe during SAP, resulting in intestinal mucosa ischemia, hypoxia, and destruction of the intestinal mucosal barrier. The permeability of the damaged intestinal mucosa increases, and endotoxin enters the blood through the intestinal wall and activates liquid tissue cells, causing it to be destroyed, and immediately produces various different types of harmful substances: phospholipase A2, kinin, tumor necrosis factors (as shown in Figure 2), interleukin-1 (IL-1), etc. These harmful substances are released with blood flow to various systems and organs throughout the body, resulting in multiple system and multiple organ dysfunction. Due to inflammatory invasion, the pancreas is further hemorrhagic and necrotic, and the serum endotoxin level rises rapidly within a few hours after onset. Although a single indicator is elevated, it is not yet diagnosed as AP. Once diagnosed, the level of serum endotoxin is related to severity. Significant value in predicting the severity of AP.
Figure 2. Protein structure of tumor necrosis factors.
Creative BioMart offers a corresponding endotoxin testing service. You can purchase the corresponding endotoxin removal kit and related accessory products according to the needs of your own samples. We guarantee that all instruments, water, reagents, and consumables used in the experiment are free of endotoxins, and the experiment is conducted in a clean room to ensure that low levels of endotoxins are returned to the sample. In addition, we can also provide you with related services including:
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